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自考论文范文-氯气生产与储存过程中危险性分析及其预防

来源:浙江自学考试专业查询平台 2020-11-26 10:44

摘 要

本文在综述氯气的理化性质和毒理作用的基础上,分析了氯气生产工艺和储存工艺及其注意事项,并对氯气生产、储存过程中的爆炸危险性进行了探讨,分析了每个危险源的形成原因。对液氯仓储系统中钢瓶泄漏进行了分析,对涉及液氯钢瓶储存需要设置的安全设施、泄漏处理进行了归纳总结。从工艺、设备、仪表等方面简要介绍了氯气泄漏、氯气系统发生爆炸的不安全因素以及防范措施,确保安全生产。着重研究了氯气泄漏爆炸的情况。并对各个危险源提出了预防措施,简介了氯气泄漏的应急处理并探讨了氯气泄漏爆炸事故中的人为原因。通过液氯生产、储运分析了各环节的事故风险环节,提出了风险防范的方向及应急处理处置的基本原则。

关键词 氯气 生产 爆炸 泄漏

Abstract

This paper reviewed the physical and chemical properties of chlorine and toxicological effects, Analysis of the chlorine production process and storage technology and its attention to matters, And chlorine production, stockpiling explosives in the process of risk were discussed, each of the reasons for the formation of dangerous source. The storage system in the cylinder of liquid chlorine leaked an analysis involving the storage of liquid chlorine cylinders need to set up the security of facilities, dealing with a leak summary. From the technology, equipment, instruments, and other aspects briefed chlorine leak, the explosion of chlorine system insecurity and preventive measures to ensure production safety. Focusing on the explosion of chlorine gas leakage. And various hazards to the preventive measures, introduction of a chlorine gas leak emergency handling of the chlorine leak and explosion accident in the man-made causes. Through the liquid chlorine production, storage and transportation of all sectors of the accident risk areas, raised the direction of risk prevention and emergency treatment and disposal of the basic principles.

Key Words Chlorine Production Burst Leakage

目 录

摘要..............................................................................1

目录..............................................................................2

1 引言 ..........................................................................4

2 氯气生产、储运过程中的事故类型.................................................4

3 生产和储存过程中发生的事故及其原因.............................................5

3.1 由于氢气产生的爆炸...........................................................5

3.2 电解槽的爆炸危险.............................................................6

3.3 高压输送容易造成超温超压,给液氯生产带来极大的危险性.........................6

3.4 输送设备故障,动力电源故障使氯气倒压或输不出去...............................7

3.5 三氯化氮引发爆炸.............................................................7

3.5.1 氯气(液氯)中三氯化氮的爆炸.................................................7

3.6 工艺中存在的引爆源...........................................................9

3.7 氯气储存过程中的危险 ........................................................9

3.7.1 过量充装...................................................................9

3.7.2 机械碰撞...................................................................9

3.7.3 受热爆炸 ..................................................................10

3.7.4 氯气泄漏爆炸事故的人为原因分析.............................................10

4 氯气泄漏爆炸事故预防措施 ......................................................11

4.1 严禁超装.....................................................................11

4.2 防腐.........................................................................11

4.2.1 湿氯防腐 ..................................................................11

4.2.2 液氯防腐...................................................................11

4.2.3 制定防腐制度...............................................................11

4.3 防碰撞 ......................................................................11

4.3.1 执行国家有关危险化学品运输管理规定.........................................11

4.3.2 钢瓶装卸、搬运必须戴好瓶帽、防震圈,严禁摔、碰、撞 ........................11

4.3.3 液氯槽区、槽车及钢瓶周围禁止机械、电气作业.................................12

4.4.1 控制NCl3生成...............................................................12

4.4.2 防止NCl3富集...............................................................12

4.4.3 控制操作规程 ..............................................................13

4.4.4 合理处理三氯化氮...........................................................13

4.4.5 消除引爆能.................................................................14

4.5 防止氢气爆炸 ................................................................14

4.5.1 防止爆炸性混合气体的形成...................................................14

4.5.2 防止有机物爆炸.............................................................14

4.5.3 控制受热 ..................................................................14

5 厂房防护措施...................................................................14

5.1 对厂房的要求 ................................................................14

5.2 工厂位置.....................................................................15

6 其他防护要求 ..................................................................15

6.1 防护设备 ....................................................................15

6.2 对工艺的要求 ................................................................15

6.4 氯气罐装要求..................................................................16

6.4.1 贮罐的位置.................................................................18

6.4.2 控制扩散...................................................................18

7 紧急情况时的处理程序...........................................................18

结论..............................................................................20

致谢..............................................................................21

参考文献..........................................................................22

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